Posts Tagged ‘Chords’

Understanding Audio Levels

In Effects, electrics, Gears on June 29, 2016 at 5:36 pm

A basic understanding of the general audio levels mentioned in this article will help you avoid the common mistakes often made when connecting audio devices together. We are going to talk about three different general levels of audio signals.  The names of the three general audio levels are speaker level, line level and microphone level. For simplicity, the different audio levels are described in volts. For an understanding of decibel levels used in audio, see the articles on decibels starting here.

Speaker Level

A speaker needs a few volts of electrical audio signal to make enough movement in the speaker to create a sound wave that we can hear. Small speakers need only a few volts, but large speakers need 50-100 volts to make a loud sound.

Line Level

A speaker is connected to an amplifier. Think of your HiFi amplifier at home. What plugs into your amplifier? DVD player, CD player, radio/tuner, video camera. All these devices plug into the “line in” or “Aux in” of your amplifier.  “Line IN”, “Aux IN” and “Line OUT” all have an electrical audio signal at line level.RCa-cables-300x164 You are probably aware of the standard red and white leads used in HiFi equipment, these all use line level. Other plugs are also used for line level. Line level is about half a volt to one (½ – 1) volt. It is the job of the amplifier to amplify the half to one volt of line level, up to the 10 volts or more of speaker level.



Note: A common error is to connect plugs and sockets together just because they fit. Don’t assume audio level based just on the type of plug being used. The same type of  plug can be used for different purposes (and different audio levels).

Microphone Level

Ok , so we have line level (about ½ – 1 volt) which goes into an amplifier to make it up to speaker level (about 10 volts or above).  What audio level do you think Mic level is? How much voltage do you think comes out of a microphone, as a result of you speaking into it? Answer: Stuff all!

The output voltage of a microphone is very low. It is measured in milli-volts, that is 1/1000th of a volt. A mic can give as little as 1 mV, or up to 100 mV, depending on how loud you speak into it. That is not very much. So what do you think is going to happen if you plug a mic directly into the line in of an amplifier? Answer: A very low level of muffled sound if anything.

Mic Pre-amps

The amplifier is wanting line level, ½ – 1 volt to produce enough signal to make the speaker work properly. But the mic is only producing milli-volts. So what is needed is a small microphone amplifier that amplifies the audio level from mic level to line level. This should go between the microphone and the amplifier. Because it is for the microphone and it is before the main amp, it is called a mic pre-amp. A mic pre-amp amplifies the milli-volts from a microphone up to line level.preamp-schematic2


Mic pre-amps are normally built into devices designed for connecting to a microphone. Equipment like an audio mixer, a digital recorder, a video camera or a computer – all these may have mic level inputs as well as line level input, or just a mic level input. .

The picture on the right shows for each input on this mixer there is a line level input mixer-inputs-270x300(labelled Line 3 and Line 4), as well as a microphone pre-amp (labelled MIC PRE).

Obviously a microphone plugs into the mic input, as the mic inputs are connected to the in-built mic pre-amps.

A line level device would obviously plug into the line in socket.

But what if your mixer (or camera/recorder) only has a microphone input, and you need to connect a line level source to it? This would result in the line level (½ – 1 volt) being connected to the input of the mic pre-amp. The trouble is, the mic preamp is expecting only a few milli-volts. The resulting sound will be very distorted as the mic pre-amp is completely overloaded.


So how can we do this? How do we connect a line level to a mic level input? We have to reduce the line level down to mic level.  The technical word for this is to attenuate the signal. As an amplifier amplifies, or boosts the signal; an attenuator attenuates, or reduces the signal.

You can buy attenuators at a music shop, they are called DI boxes. DI stands for Direct Injection, meaning you can directly inject a line level into the mic input without any problems. It is also possible to make an attenuator, possibly with variable attenuation, to cope with different levels. It is also possible to buy or build a fixed attenuator in a cable. This is a cable with resistors built-in to the plugs to attenuate the line level down to mic level – this is very useful for a video camera or portable digital recorder.

Audio Level Summary

There are three main audio signal levels: mic level (millivolts), line level (around 1 volt) and speaker level (around 10 volts or more). The rule is, only plug speakers into the speaker socket of an amplifier; only line level into the line in of any equipment; and only mic level in the mic input of your mixer, camera or laptop.  The most common cause of  audio distortion comes from not understanding the different levels, and how to connect them all together.

Practical Example 1

Scenario: A keyboard (electric piano) located on the stage needs to connect to a mixer located at the back of the hall, with a microphone multi-core cable connecting between the two.

Issue: The output of the keyboard is at line level, and the microphone input at the mixer requires mic level. (There is also the issue of different plugs and balanced/unbalanced inputs but these are the topics of other articles).

Solution: Use a basic DI box available from most music or electronic stores. A DI box acts as an attenuator which reduces the line level of the keyboard to mic level for direct connection to the mixer (via the multi-core cable). The DI box also overcomes the issues of matching plugs and going from unbalanced to balanced  – so this is a perfect solution. This solution also works for connecting electric guitars, electronic drums and DVD players.


Scenario: The output (line level) of an audio mixer needs to connect to a digital camera or digital recorder which only has a microphone input.

Issue: The output of the mixer is at line level, and the microphone input of the camera/recorder requires mic level.

Solution: A basic DI box could be used, but this would require an input lead, and output lead and the DI box  – a lot to carry in your camera bag. A neater solution is to have a lead with a 40dB attenuator built into it. This will reduce the line level from the mixer by a factor of 100, which will bring the line level down to a reasonable mic level to connect directly to the microphone socket of the camera/recorder.

pdf document for print: understanding-Audio-levels

All comes from Geoff the Grey Greek, thanks to him


Lary Carlton Stormy Blues lessons

In Blues, Chords, Lessons, Rhythms on June 24, 2016 at 5:36 pm

Why the Major Chord is Happy and the Minor Chord is Sad.

In Chords, Fun on May 19, 2016 at 5:02 pm

We’ve heard all our life that the major chord is happy & the minor chord is sad. Here’s an infographic explaining why


Drop 2 voicing

In Chords, Lessons on July 1, 2014 at 12:46 pm

Drop 2 voicings are formed by taking a chord and then dropping the next to the highest note, or voice, to the lowest note of the chord. Similarly, there are drop 1, drop 3, drop 2 & 4, etc. Drop 2 voicings are important because most of these chords are easy for a guitarist to play on 4 adjacent strings.

Drop 2 is just a name for how the chords were derived from another chord. This is only important for naming the voicings. We will describe how they are derived then we will show you the voicings.


the complete article here: DROP 2 VOICINGS

The example below shows four C Major 7 chords and their drop 2 voicings in standard notation. The important thing to realize is which note is dropped to the lowest note


Overview of Funk’s styles and guitar chords

In Chords, Funk, Lessons, Rhythms on March 16, 2014 at 12:27 am
9th Chordsfunk-logo
funk guitar ninth chords

The 9th Chord

The 9th chord (shown above) is a funk guitar staple used constantly by funk guitarists. Especially the chord on the left, with the root (notated by the red dot) on the fifth string. Be careful about playing the sixth string root 9th chord on the lower frets – it can sound very muddy.

The 9th chord is a 7th chord with one extra note, added for color. Try replacing 7th chords in songs you know with 9th chords. There are some situations where this substitution doesn’t work – use your ear to tell you what sounds right.

It is also EXTREMELY common for funk guitarists to only play the top three strings when playing the fifth string root 9th chord. Sometimes, they’ll even only play the top two strings.

The 13th Chord
thirteenth 13th chords funk guitar

Played on it’s own, this is a pretty “jazzy” sounding chord that might sound a little out of place in funk music. It is commonly used, however, as a “passing chord”.  Note that the above 13th chord is essentially a 9th chord, with the note on the first string being two frets higher. Many funk guitarists will play the 13th chord, then quickly resolve it to the 9th chord, by removing their pinky from the first string, and playing the chord again.

Basic Funk Chords
basic funk guitar chords

There seems to be a preference in funk music to use chord shapes that have the root on the first string. Since the first and sixth string are both “E” strings, learning to use these chord shapes should be easy for guitarists who have already learned their note-names on the sixth string.

The major chord above gets used reasonably often, although many times, funk guitarists will only play the top two notes of the chord, which makes it identical to the 5th chord displayed above.

The minor chord above is also used extensively. Note that this minor chord shape is identical to the 9th chord with root on fifth string, when the bottom two strings are not played. So, many funk guitarists would play the above chord shape on the fifth fret for both an A minor chord and a D9 chord.

The above 5th chord is extremely popular. This two note chord is VERY versatile, and can be used for many things. Since a 5th chord can be used to play either a major or minor chord, the above shape, played at the fifth fret, could be an A major or an A minor chord. It could ALSO be the top two notes of a D9 chord. This chord shape is used to represent all of these chords – it’s a popular one – so get comfortable with it.

Funk Guitar Rhythmstru-funk
You want to know the real secret of playing great funk guitar? It’s ALL about paying attention to the rhythmic aspect of the music. Many funk songs consist of only a simple melody and a couple chords, so the groove has to be strong to maintain listener interest. It is important to acknowledge that the role of most funk music is to get people dancing. You’ll have a harder time accomplishing this with intricate and flashy guitar parts. You’ll need to give your ego a rest and focus on locking in a groove with your band. Let’s take some time to explore various songs, and the approach the guitarist takes in each. There are several philosophies of playing funk rhythm guitar…. Minimalist Funk & Funk Guitar Often somewhat misleadingly referred to as “black funk” (because, initially, more African Americans took an interest in this approach to funk music), the concept here is “play what you need to play, and get out of the way”. Applied to funk guitar, this means leaving a LOT of space, without playing muted strums, etc. Give a listen to the following mp3 clips: James Brown – Sex Machine
Notice the guitar player is playing NO muted strums in this part – simply repeating a four strum figure. Many of us, when playing a part like this, would feel a natural desire to include muted 16th note strums within the part. Avoid doing this. The Meters – Just Kissed My Baby
The guitar plays a single-note line, but the minimal guitar part is very disciplined in that it does not stray from the riff. The JB’s – House Party (Fred Wesley)
This song sounds “busier”, and there are two guitarists, but listen to each of them, and you’ll note they’re repeating the exact same parts again and again, with no variation. Another example of the need for discipline in funk music. Pay attention to all instruments here – everyone plays their specific part, which adds to the whole.“Busy” Funk

This approach is a little different – perhaps a little less disciplined than the above style of playing funk. There is less space in this style of music, and guitar players in this style tend to play a lot more muted string strums, etc. The result is a groove that usually feels a little less laid-back, and more “frantic”. Have a listen to a few songs in this style:

Tower of Power – What is Hip?
Really active bass and drums give this song it’s somewhat frenzied, albeit very funky sound. The guitar player wisely stays largely out of the way, keeping muted strumming to a minimum (too many musicians being too busy at once can yield disasterous results).

Stevie Ray Vaughan – Superstition
SRV’s take on the Stevie Wonder classic is a great example of this style of funk music. Vaughan fills up the space in the music with muted string strums to propel the music forward.

Graham Central Station – The Jam
Bassist Larry Graham leads this one, and it’s another example of very robust, in-your-face funk, with little left to the imagination. Lots of busy strumming by the guitar player.

Online Funk Rhythm Lessons

Now you’ve listened to some great examples of various kinds of funk and funk guitar, you might want to practice your funk rhythm chops a bit. Have a look at some or all of the following sites: Funk Guitar 101
Designed to help you practice your 16th note funk strums. Good for “busier” funk music. MelBooker Music: Funk Guitar Rhythms
This YouTube video features Mel describing some basic funk rhythmic patterns. This style of playing would fall under “busy funk”. Arlen Roth Funk Guitar Lesson
This video lesson demonstrates Arlen Roth’s approach to playing funk guitar. Some nice licks and advice, although his style of funk guitar playing is too undisciplined for my tastes. Leo Nocentelli Funk Guitar Lesson
A fantastic video lesson from the legendary guitarist from The Meters. Nocentelli describes his process of creating a funk guitar part that mimics a drummer and horn players.Funk Guitar Parts: James Brown’s “Sex Machine

james brown sex machine funk guitar tab

Now is the time to see some of the techniques we’ve learned in action! The following are just a few of the thousands of funk songs that feature 9th and 13th chords, muted strums, and more. Try listening to each mp3 clip, and concentrate on replicating the guitar part exactly. In almost every instance below, mimicking the notes is easy, but capturing the proper feel of the guitar part is much more difficult. Be patient and critical of your guitar playing for all examples.

This is a prime display of the funk guitarist’s use of a 13th chord to create an interesting part. Concentrate on deadening the strings with your fretting hand. Avoid adding muted strums to fill in the space within the guitar part. Try to make the riff groove without any extra strums.

The Temptations’ “Shakey Ground

temptations shakey ground funk guitar tab

The notes are easy – getting the feel right is much tougher. The key is to “pop” the strings with your pick – strike them firmly, with careful attention to rhythm. The muting (not included in tab) should all be done via the fretting hand.

Jeff Beck’s “You Know What I Mean

jeff beck you know what i mean guitar tab

The classic opening cut on Blow by Blow, this features Beck at his funky best. Notice he avoids using any muted strumming, which you should try and reproduce. This is another example of a 13th chord moving to the 9th chord.

Kool and the Gang’s “Hollywood Swinging

kool and the gang funk guitar tab lesson

As is fairly typical of funk music, the bulk of this song is one chord. To create interest, the guitarist switches chord shapes from an E7 to an E9, which changes the sound slightly. Notice the subtlety in the rhythm pattern – the first three phrases start with an up-strum, but the last one begins with a down-strum.

James Brown’s “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag

james brown papa's got a brand new bag guitar tab

This is a VERY common sort of funk guitar part – especially in earlier funk. The guitar is simply playing short quarter notes, staying out of the way of horns, and other instruments. When playing the flurry of 16th note strums at the end of the part, pay careful attention to playing the rhythms accurately. Note that the song is simply a 12-bar blues, played in a funk style.

Patrice Rushen’s “The Hump

patrice rushen the hump guitar tab

This is an almost cliche guitar part that nonetheless sounds cool, and can literally be played with one finger. The trick is the rhythmic aspect of the guitar part. Lots of muted strums here – pay careful attention to detail, and try to replicate the part perfectly.

Protected: Funk Guitar Rhythms mp3s

In Chords, Funk, Lessons, Solfège on March 15, 2014 at 10:24 am

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iRealb chords scores (others)

In Chords, Partitions on December 9, 2013 at 5:51 pm

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iRealb chords scores for our favorites tunes

In Chords, Partitions on December 9, 2013 at 5:40 pm

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Joe Pass – Caged 3 boxes

In Chords, Methods, Practices on May 7, 2013 at 9:29 am

To be worked every days, in the dark :), extract from Joe Pass method: On Guitar

JPass Caged

Quartal and quintal harmony

In Chords, Classic, Theorie on November 5, 2012 at 2:32 pm

In music, quartal harmony is the building of harmonic structures with a distinct preference for the intervals of the perfect fourth, the augmented fourth and the diminished fourth. Quintal harmony is harmonic structure preferring the perfect fifth, the augmented fifth and the diminished fifth. In modern tuning, the augmented fourth and the diminished fifth are identical and are often called the tritone because the interval between the two notes is three tones.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Four Note Quartal chord

Use of the terms quartal and quintal arises from a contrast, compositional or perceptual, with traditional tertian harmonic constructions. Listeners familiar with music during and after the Common practice period perceive tonal music as that which uses major and minor chords and scales, wherein both the major third and minor third constitute the basic structural elements of the harmony.

Quartal chord on A equals thirteenth chord on B♭, distinguished by the arrangement of chord factors

Quintal harmony (the harmonic layering of fifths specifically) is a lesser-used term, and since the fifth is the inversion or complement of the fourth, it is usually considered indistinct from quartal harmony. Indeed, a circle of fifths can be arranged in fourths (G→C→F→B etc. are fifths when played downwards and fourths when played upwards); this is the reason that modern theoreticians may speak of a “circle of fourths”.



The concept of quartal harmony outlines a formal harmonic structure based on the use of the interval of a perfect fourth to form chords. The fourth, thus, substitutes for the third as used in chords based on major and minor thirds. Although the fourth replaces the third in chords, quartal harmony rarely replaces tertian harmony in full works. Instead, the two types of harmony are found side-by-side. Since the distance between the lower and the higher notes of a stack of two perfect fourths is a minor seventh and this interval inverts to a major second, quartal harmony necessarily also includes these intervals. Whether one hears these chords and intervals as consonant or dissonant is a matter of personal interpretation.

Analytical difficulties

One possible interpretation of a quartal chord: fourth suspension, resolving to dominant seventh and tonic 6/4 chord

A quartal chord composed of the notes C – F – B may be regarded using traditional theory as a C dominant seventh chord (with an omitted fifth) in the midst of a 4–3 suspension, or as C7sus4 (see suspended chord), where the fourth does not require resolution. Fsus4, a suspended second-inversion chord, would also be a plausible label. Extending quartal chords to four or more notes generates still more possibilities of a similar nature. The four-note chord C – F – B – E can be interpreted as a C minor chord with a minor seventh and embellishing fourth (Cm7add4 or Cm11), or as an inversion of an E-flat major chord with a second-suspension and embellishing sixth—Esus2(add6), among other interpretations.

Traditional resolution of suspensions to a major triad and to a minor triad

The question of which strategy of analysis is advisable is hard to answer since it is refined by the particular details: given one interpretation, and the progression of harmony through the preceding and following chords, and the overall musical development, is there a comprehensible and audibly functional meaning to the interpretation? It is important to question whether these suspensions, chromatic chords and altered chords are resolved as part of the functional harmony or whether they remain non-functional and unresolved.


In the Middle Ages, simultaneous notes a fourth apart were heard as a consonance. During the common practice period (between about 1600 and 1900), this interval came to be heard either as a dissonance (when appearing as a suspension requiring resolution in the voice leading) or as a consonance (when the tonic of the chord appears in parts higher than the fifth of the chord). In the later 19th century, during the breakdown of tonality in classical music, all intervallic relationships were once again reassessed. Quartal harmony was developed in the early 20th century as a result of this breakdown and reevaluation of tonality. Jazz and rock of the 1960s frequently used quartal harmony.


The Tristan chord

The Tristan chord is made up of the notes F, B, D and G and is the very first chord heard in Wagner’s operaTristan und Isolde. The bottom two notes make up an augmented fourth; the upper two make up a perfect fourth. This layering of fourths in this context has been seen as highly significant. The chord had been found in earlier works (Vogel 1962, 12; Nattiez 1990, (notably Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 18) but Wagner’s use was significant, first because it is seen as moving away from traditional tonal harmony and even towards atonality, and second because with this chord Wagner actually provoked the sound or structure of musical harmony to become more predominant than its function, a notion which was soon after to be explored by Debussy and others (Erickson 1975, Beethoven’s use of the chord is of short duration and it resolves in the accepted manner; whereas Wagner’s use lasts much longer and resolves in a highly unorthodox manner for the time. Despite the layering of fourths, it is rare to find musicologists identifying this chord as “quartal harmony” or even as “proto-quartal harmony”, since Wagner’s musical language is still essentially built on thirds, and even an ordinary dominant seventh chord can be laid out as augmented fourth plus perfect fourth (F-B-D-G). Wagner’s unusual chord is really a device to draw the listener into the musical-dramatic argument with which the composer in presenting us. However, fourths become important later in the opera, especially in the melodic development.

The Mystic chord

At the beginning of the 20th century, fourth-based chords finally became an important element of harmony.

Scriabin used a self-developed system of transposition using fourth-chords, like his Mystic chord in his Piano Sonata No. 6. Scriabin wrote this chord in his sketches alongside other quartal passages and more traditional tertian passages, often passing between systems, for example widening the six-note quartal sonority (C – F – B – E – A – D) into a seven-note chord (C – F – B – E – A – D – G).

Scriabin’s sketches for his unfinished work Mysterium show that he intended to develop the Mystic chord into a huge chord incorporating all twelve notes of the chromatic scale (Morrison 1998, 316).

Measures 24 to 27 from Mussorgsky’s The Hut on Fowl’s Legs

Quartal harmony in “Laideronnette” from Ravel’s Ma mère l’oye. The top line uses the pentatonic scale (Benward & Saker 2003, 37)

In the 1897 work Paul Dukas’s The Sorcerer’s Apprentice, we hear a rising repetition in fourths, as the tireless work of out-of-control walking brooms causes the water level in the house to “rise and rise”. Quartal harmony in Ravel’s Sonatine and Ma mère l’oye would follow a few years later.

20th- and 21st-century classical music

Composers who use the techniques of quartal harmony include Claude Debussy, Francis Poulenc, Alexander Scriabin, Alban Berg, Leonard Bernstein, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, and Anton Webern (Herder 1987, 78) Arnold Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op. 9 (1906) displays quartal harmony. The work begins not from tonal harmony, but instead begins with a fictitious tonal-centre: the first measures construct a five-part fourth chord with the notes C – F – B – E – A distributed over several instruments. The composer then picks out this vertical quartal harmony in a horizontal sequence of fourths from the horns, eventually leading to a passage of triadic quartal harmony (i.e., chords of three notes, each layer a fourth apart).

Six-note horizontal fourth chord in Arnold Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op. 9

Schoenberg was also one of the first to write on the theoretical consequences of this harmonic innovation. In his Theory of Harmony (Harmonielehre) of 1911 (Schoenberg 1911, he wrote: “The quartal construction of chords can lead to a chord containing all twelve notes of the chromatic scale, and with that comes a possibility for the systematic use of those harmonic phenomena that have already been obtained in some recent works having seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, and twelve-part chords…

Vertical quartal-harmony in the opening measures of Arnold Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op. 9

The quartal construction allows… the accommodation of all possible phenomena of harmony” Other examples of quartal harmony appear in Schoenberg’s String Quartet No. 1

Quartal chord from Schoenberg’s String Quartet No. 1

Quartal harmony from Schoenberg’s String Quartet No. 1

For Anton Webern, the importance of quartal harmony lay in the possibility of building new sounds. In 1912, he wrote, “With alteration the fourth-chord never need belong to tonal harmony, but can be free of all tonal relationships. After hearing Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony, Webern wrote “You must write something like that, too!” (The Path to the New Music, p.48. “So was mußt du auch machen!” Shortly after, he wrote his Four Pieces for Violin and Piano Op. 7, using quartal harmony as a formal principle, which was also used in later works.

Uninfluenced by the theoretical and practical work of the Second Viennese School, the American Charles Ives meanwhile wrote in 1906 a song called “The Cage” (No. 64 of his collection, 114 songs), in which the piano part contained four-part fourth chords accompanying a vocal line which moves in whole tones.

Introduction to Ives’s “The Cage”, 114 Songs (Reisberg 1975, 345)

Other 20th-century composers, like Béla Bartók with his piano work Mikrokosmos and Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta, as well as Paul Hindemith, Carl Orff and Igor Stravinsky, employed quartal harmony in their work. These composers joined Romantic elements with Baroque music, folk songs and their peculiar rhythm and harmony with the open harmony of fourths and fifths.

Fourths in Béla Bartók’s Mikrokosmos V, No. 131, Fourths (Quartes)

Hindemith constructed large parts of his symphonic work Symphony: Mathis der Maler by means of fourth and fifth intervals. These steps are a restructuring of fourth chords (C – D – G becomes the fourth chord D – G – C), or other mixtures of fourths and fifths (D – A – D – G – C in measure 3 of the example). Hindemith was, however, not a proponent of an explicit quartal harmony. In his 1937 writing Unterweisung im Tonsatz (The Craft of Musical Composition, Hindemith 1937), he wrote that “notes have a family of relationships, that are the bindings of tonality, in which the ranking of intervals is unambiguous,” so much so, indeed, that in the art of triadic composition “…the musician is bound by this, as the painter to his primary colours, the architect to the three dimensions.” He lined up the harmonic and melodic aspects of music in a row in which the octave ranks first, then the fifth and the third, and then the fourth. “The strongest and most unique harmonic interval after the octave is the fifth, the prettiest nevertheless is the third by right of the chordal effects of its Combination tones.”

Fourth and fifth writing in the second movement of Paul Hindemith’s Mathis der Maler

Quartal harmony in Hindemith’s Flute Sonata, II with tonal center on B established by descent in left hand in dorian and repeated B’s and F♯’s (Kostka & Payne 1995, 498)

In his Theory of Harmony (Schoenberg 1978, 407): “Besides myself my students Dr. Anton Webern and Alban Berg have written these harmonies (fourth chords), but also the Hungarian Béla Bartók or the Viennese Franz Schreker, who both go a similar way to Debussy, Dukas and perhaps also Puccini, are not far off.

British composer Michael Tippett also employed quartal harmonies extensively in works from his middle period. Examples are his Piano Concerto and the opera The Midsummer Marriage. An almost constant quartal harmony is used by Bertold Hummel in his Second Symphony of 1966. A similarly obvious example is the work of Mieczysław Weinberg.Hermann Schroeder alternated in his works using fragments of Gregorian Chant between quintal and quartal harmony. Also the Polish composer Witold Lutosławski devised a use that allows many harmonic combinations to be applied to a single part, having several combinations that may be tried against it, like fourths with whole tones, tritones with semitones, or other possibilities.

In the first movement of Olivier Messiaen’s Turangalîla-Symphonie, a six-note combination is constructed in pieces from fourths and tritones, much like in the music of Schoenberg and Scriabin. Much of Messiaen’s work applies quartal harmony, moderated by his development of what he called “Modes of limited transposition”.

A preference for quartal harmony is present in the works of Leo Brouwer (10 Etudes for Guitar), Robert Delanoff (Zwiegespräche für Orgel), Ivan Vïshnegradsky, Tōru Takemitsu(Cross Hatch) and Hanns Eisler (Hollywood-Elegy). In the 1960s, the use of tone clusters juxtaposing minor and major seconds pushed aside quartal harmony somewhat. The orchestral work of György Ligeti, Atmosphères of 1961, makes extensive use of such sounds.

As a transition to the history of jazz, George Gershwin may be mentioned. In the first movement of his Concerto in F altered fourth chords descend chromatically in the right hand with a chromatic scale leading upward in the left hand.


The style of jazz, having an eclectic harmonic orbit, was in its early days overtaken (until perhaps the Swing of the 1930s) by the vocabulary of 19th century European music. Important influences come thereby from opera, operetta, military bands as well as from the piano music of Classical and Romantic composers, and even that of the Impressionists. Jazz musicians had a clear interest in harmonic richness of colour, for which quartal harmony provided possibilities, as used by pianists and arrangers like Jelly Roll Morton, Duke Ellington, Art Tatum, Bill Evans (Hester 2000, 199) Milt Buckner (Hester 2000, 199) Chick Corea (Herder 1987, 78; Scivales 2005, 203) Herbie Hancock (Herder 1987, 78; Scivales 2005, 203) and especially McCoy Tyner (Herder 1987, 78; Scivales 2005, 205). Nevertheless, the older jazz usually handled fourths in the customary manner (as a suspension needing resolution).

The ii–V–I cadence the fourth-suspension or sus chord

Bebop brought an aesthetic change to modern jazz: the chords which before had a relative identity (as major and minor,dominant, etc.) gave way to block transpositions, with a fleeting, smooth flowing tonality, having the colours of chords blurred and strongly ambiguous. A prevalent example for this is the beloved ii-V-I cadence of modern jazz.

In the figure to the right, the musician plays the same outer voices as in a traditional cadence, but substitutions have been made in the inner voices. These altered voices still exhibit normal voice leading but within the extended harmony of jazz. The multiplicity of possibilities available can be used as a framework for improvisation. In addition, compositions of this time often had a frantic tempo, allowing more leeway in the harmony of fleeting chords (because they are not sounding for very long). Quartal harmony was employed throughout the jazz of the 1940s.

A typical hard bop brass part, from Horace Silver’s “Señor Blues”

The hard bop of the 1950s made new applications of quartal harmony accessible to jazz Quintet writing in which two brass instruments (commonly trumpet and saxophone) may proceed in fourths, while the piano (as a uniquely harmonic instrument) lays down chords, but sparsely, only hinting at the intended harmony. This style of writing, in contrast with that of the previous decade, preferred a moderate tempo. Thin-sounding unison bebop horn sections occur frequently, but these are balanced by bouts of very refined polyphony such as is found in cool jazz.

The “So What” chord uses three intervals of a fourth.

On his watershed record Kind of Blue, Miles Davis with pianist Bill Evans used a chord consisting of three perfect fourth intervals and a major third on the composition “So What“. This particular voicing is sometimes referred to as a So What chord, and can be analyzed (without regard for added sixths, ninths, etc.) as a minor seventh with the root on the bottom, or as a major seventh with the third on the bottom (Levine 1989, 97).

From the outset of the 1960s, the employment of quartal possibilities had become so familiar that the musician now felt the fourth chord existed as a separate entity, self standing and free of any need to resolve. The pioneering of quartal writing in later jazz and rock, like the pianist McCoy Tyner’s work with saxophonist John Coltrane’s “classic quartet”, was influential throughout this epoch. Oliver Nelson was also known for his use of fourth chord voicings (Corozine 2002, 12). Floyd claims that the “foundation of ‘modern quartal harmony'” began in the era when the Charlie Parker–influenced John Coltrane added classically trained pianists Bill Evans and McCoy Tyner to his ensemble (Floyd 2004, 4).

Jazz guitarists cited as using chord voicings using quartal harmony include Johnny Smith, Tal Farlow, Chuck Wayne, Barney Kessel, Joe Pass, Jimmy Raney, Wes Montgomery, however all in a traditional manner, as major 9th, 13th and minor 11th chords (Floyd 2004, 4) (an octave and fourth equals an 11th). Jazz guitarists cited as using modern quartal harmony include Jim Hall (especially Sonny Rollins’s The Bridge), George Benson (“Skydive”), Pat Martino, Jack Wilkins (“Windows”), Joe Diorio, Howard Roberts (“Impressions”), Kenny Burrell (“So What”), Wes Montgomery (“Little Sunflower”), Henry Johnson, Russell Malone, Jimmy Bruno, Howard Alden, Paul Bollenback, Mark Whitfield, and Rodney Jones (Floyd 2004, 4).

Quartal harmony was also explored as a possibility under new experimental scale models as they were “discovered” by jazz. Musicians began to work extensively with the so-called church modes of old European music, and they became firmly situated in their compositional process. Jazz was well-suited to incorporate the medieval use of fourths to thicken lines into its improvisation. The pianists Herbie Hancock, and Chick Corea are two musicians well known for their modal experimentation. Around this time, a style known as free jazz also came into being, in which quartal harmony had extensive use due to the wandering nature of its harmony.

Fourths in Herbie Hancock’s “Maiden Voyage”

Between these intensive experiments with quartal harmony, the search for new applications for it in jazz was quickly exhausted. Around 1970, quartal harmony had become part of the canon of everyday practice. In jazz, the way chords were built from a scale came to be called voicing, and specifically quartal harmony was referred to as fourth voicing.

ii-V-I turnaround with fourth voicings: all chords are in fourth voicings They are often ambiguous as, for example, the Dm11 and G9sus chords are here voiced identically and will thus be distinguished for the listener by the root movement of the bassist (Boyd 1997, 94)

Thus when the m11 and the dominant 7th sus (9sus above) chords in quartal voicings are used together they tend to “blend into one overall sound” sometimes referred to as modal voicings, and both may be applied where the m11 chord is called for during extended periods such as the entire chorus (Boyd 1997, 95).

Rock music

Quartal harmony is part of the compositional framework of rock music, especially in riffs and power chords, which often use fifths and fourths instead of triadic harmony. In hard rock and heavy metal, whole songs were often built up from riffs of fourths and fifths on the electric guitar.

In funk, there is a stylistic device of interjecting fourths in syncopation by the guitars, keyboards, or brass section, as with the riff in the song “Flash Light” by George Clinton’s band Parliament, 1977.

The song “Man on the Silver Mountain” recorded in 1975 by the band Rainbow includes a riff completely composed of fourths.

Progressive rock bands like King Crimson, Gentle Giant or Emerson, Lake & Palmer show likewise a fondness for melody and harmony combined into a single structure, theostinato, often in fourths Tarkus by Emerson, Lake & Palmer is almost entirely based on quartal harmony, from the ostinato in the opening bass figure to the parallel harmony in “Aquatarkus”. Also Guitar Synthesis composers such as Chuck Hammer began to layer fourths and fifths in Guitarchitecture pieces such as “Glacial Guitars”, in order to explore sustain as a compositional component. Some classical principles of composition utilized by Gentle Giant in their a cappella vocals for the song “Design”. Over two alternating fourth chords (F – B – D – A and D – G – C – E) three voices move one after another in canonic imitation. This imitation allows harsh clashes between the parts to appear as a tension-generating device without disrupting the continuity of the passage.

Latin American music

The Popular music of Latin American countries is interrelated with the development of “Latin music” in the U.S., due to considerable cultural exchange.

The brass section of Ray Barretto’s version of “Amor Artificial”

Guitar break from Milton Nascimento’s composition, “Vera Cruz”

Latin music has a tendency toward a slightly faster tempo than the equivalent music in the USA. Quartal harmony found its way into salsa and Latin jazz via the jazz men (such as the playing of John Coltrane), but the concept of rhythm in the Afro-Cuban tradition was also an influence. The guitarist Carlos Santana became world-known by combining these influences.

In the Música Popular Brasileira of Brazil, the guitar has a central role as the harmonic instrument similar to the instrument’s role in Rock. As a result, the quartal oriented playing of the guitar was borrowed and the unique rhythmic tradition adapted to fit (as in Tropicalismo). Even earlier, however, the notable Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887–1959) wrote pioneering works in the first half of the 20th century combining elements of folk music and the popular music of his homeland with the quartal-harmonic experiments of European and North American classical music.

Examples of quartal pieces


  • William Albright, Sonata for Alto Saxophone and Piano (Lewis 1985, 443)
  • Alban Berg, Sonata for Piano, op. 1 (Lambert 1996, 118)
    – Wozzeck (Lambert 1996, 118; Reisberg 1975, 344–46)
  • Carlos Chávez
    – Sinfonía de Antígona (Symphony No. 1), uses quartal harmony throughout (Orbón 1987, 83)
    – Sinfonía india (Symphony No. 2), the A-minor Sonora melody beginning in b. 183 is accompanied by quartal harmonies (Leyva 2010, 56)

  • Aaron Copland,  Of Mice and Men (Bick 2005, 446, 448, 451)

Parallel fourths evoking organum in Debussy’s “The Sunken Cathedral” opening (Reisberg 1975, 343–44).

  • Claude Debussy, “La cathédrale engloutie”, beginning and ending (Reisberg 1975, 343–44)
  • Norman Dello Joio, Suite for Piano
  • Caspar Diethelm, Piano Sonata No. 7 (Kroeger 1969)
  • Alberto Ginastera, 12 American Preludes, Prelude #7
  • Carlos Guastavino, “Donde habite el olvido” (Kulp 2006, 207)
  • Walter Hartley, Bacchanalia for Band (Spieth 1978)
  • Charles Ives
    – “The Cage” (1906) (Carr 1989, 135; Lambert 1990, 44; Lambert 1996, 118; Murphy 2008, 179, 181, 183, 185–86, 190–91; Reisberg 1975, 344–45; Scott 1994, 458)
    – Central Park in the Dark (Scott 1994, 458)
    – “Harpalus” (Scott 1994, 458)
    – Psalm 24, verse 5 (Lambert 1990, 67; Scott 1994, 458)
    – Psalm 90 (Scott 1994, 458)
    – “Walking” (Scott 1994, 458)
  • Aram Khachaturian,  Toccata
  • Benjamin Lees, String Quartet No. 2, Adagio (Cowell 1956, 243)
  • Darius Milhaud, Sonatina for flute & piano, Op. 76 (Cardew-Fanning n.d.)
  • Walter Piston
    – Clarinet Concerto (Archibald 1969, 825)
    – Ricercare for Orchestra (Archibald 1969, 825)
  • Maurice Ravel
    – Ma mère l’oye : “Mouvt de Marche” of “Laideronnette” (Murphy, Melcher, and Warch 1973,
  • Ned Rorem, King Midas, cantata (Sjoerdsma 1972)
  • Erik Satie, Le fils des étoiles (Carpenter n.d.; Reisberg 1975, 347)

Six-note horizontal fourth chord in Arnold Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op.9

  • Arnold Schoenberg
    – The Book of the Hanging Gardens (Domek 1979, 112–13, 117)
    – Chamber Symphony, Op. 9 (Reisberg 1975, 344–45; Sanderson n.d.), slow section (Rubin 2005), b. 1–3 (Lambert 1990, 68)
    – Wind Quintet, op. 26 (Corson and Christensen 1984)
  • Cyril Scott, Diatonic Study (1914) (Stein 1979, 18)
  • Nikos Skalkottas, Suite No. 3 for Piano (Dickinson 1963)
  • Stephen Sondheim, Piano Sonata (Swayne 2002, 285–87, 290)
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen, Klavierstück IX (Reisberg 1975, 349–50)
  • Howard Swanson “Saw a Grave” (Moe 1981–82, 70)
  • Anton Webern, Variations for Piano, Op. 27 (Reisberg 1975, 348)


  • Miles Davis, Kind of Blue (Josh n.d.)