Posts Tagged ‘Public Address’

Why Stage monitors, and public address system

In Gears, Sonorisation on November 3, 2013 at 9:55 am

Simply to familiarize ourselves with those strange accronisms in sound engineering. This article is about onstage monitor speakers for live performances.

Foldback (also called “stage monitors”) is the use of rear-facing heavy-duty loudspeakers known as monitor speaker cabinets on stage during live music performances. The sound is amplified with power amplifiers or a public address system and the speakers are aimed at the on-stage performers rather than the audience. This sound signal may be produced on the same mixing console as the main mix for the audience (called the FOH  ’front of house‘ mix), or there may be a separate sound engineer and mixing console on or beside the stage creating a separate mix for the monitor system.

Without a foldback system, the sound that onstage performers would hear from front of house would be the reverberated reflections bouncing from the rear wall of the venue. The naturally-reflected sound is delayed and distorted, which would cause the singer to sing out of time with the band. A separate mixed signal is often routed to the foldback speakers, because the performers may also need to hear a mix without electronic effects such as echo and reverb (this is called a “dry mix“) to stay in time and in tune with each other. In situations with poor or absent foldback mixes, vocalists may end up singing off-tune or out of time with the band.

This small venue’s stage shows an example of a typical monitor speaker set-up: there are three “wedge” monitors directed towards the area of the stage where singers will be performing. The drummer has both a subwoofer cabinet (for monitoring the bass drum and the electric bass) and a “wedge”-style cabinet for monitoring vocals and mid- or high-frequency sounds

For live sound reproduction during popular music concerts there are typically two complete PA systems: the “main” system and the “monitor” system. Each system consists of a mixing board, sound processing equipment, amplifiers, and speakers. The two systems usually share microphones and direct inputs using a splitter microphone snake. There is disagreement over when to call these audio systems Sound Reinforcement (SR) systems or Public Address (PA) systems. This distinction is important in some regions or markets, while in other regions or markets the terms are interchangeable.

The “main” system (also known as “Front of House“, commonly abbreviated FOH), which provides the amplified sound for the audience, will typically use a number of powerful amplifiers driving a range of large, heavy-duty loudspeakers including low-frequency speaker cabinets called subwoofers, full-range speaker cabinets, and high-range horns. A coffeehouse or small bar where singers perform while accompanying themselves on acoustic guitar may have a relatively small, low-powered PA system for the “mains”, such as a pair of two 200 watt powered speakers. A large club may use several power amplifiers to provide 1000 to 2000 watts of power to the “main” speakers. An outdoor rock concert may use racks of a number of power amplifiers to provide 10,000 or more watts.

The “monitor” system reproduces the sounds of the performance and directs them towards the onstage performers (typically using wedge-shaped monitor speaker cabinets), to help them hear the instruments and vocals. In British English, the monitor system is referred to as the “fold back“. The monitor system in a coffeehouse or singer-songwriter stage for a small bar may be a single 100 watt powered monitor wedge. In the smallest PA systems, the performer may set their own “main” and “monitor” sound levels with a simple powered mixing board. The simplest monitor systems consist of a single monitor speaker for the lead vocalist which amplifies their singing voice, so that they can hear it clearly.

In a large club where rock or metal bands play, the monitor system may use racks of power amplifiers and four to six monitor speakers to provide 500 to 1000 watts of power to the “monitor” speakers. In most clubs and larger venues, sound engineers and technicians control the mixing boards for the “main” and “monitor” systems, adjusting the tone, levels, and overall volume of the performance.

Larger clubs and concert venues typically use a more complex type of monitor system which has two or three different monitor mixes for the different performers. Each monitor mix contains a blend of different vocal and instruments, and an amplified speaker is placed in front of the performer. This way the lead vocalist can have a mix which forefronts their vocals, the backup singers can have a mix which emphasizes their backup vocals, and the rhythm section members can have a mix which emphasizes the bass and drums. At an outdoor rock concert, there may be several thousand watts of power going to a complex monitor system that includes wedge-shaped cabinets for vocalists and larger cabinets called “sidefill” cabinets to help the musicians to hear their playing.

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Exemple de Stage Plots (plan de sonorisation)

In Gears, Sonorisation on November 30, 2011 at 10:13 am

Celui-ci est particulièrement clair, on peut y ajouter simplement le nombre et l’emplacement des prises d’alimentation électriques et quelques DIs.

Autres exemples de plan de sonorisations:

 

Enceintes actives Mackie SRM450 v2

In Gears, Public Address, Sonorisation on January 29, 2011 at 10:15 pm

Les enceintes actives Mackie SRM450 v2 Black combinent qualité supérieure et technologie innovante pour offrir des performances et une fiabilité ultimes à la légendaire série SRM (Sound Reinforcement Monitor).

Avec une alimentation à découpage ultra-efficace, un boomer au néodyme, un tout nouveau moteur à compression et une amplification Fast Recovery classe D, les SRM450 v2 Black embarque plus de puissance, de clarté et de punch.

Leur large dispersion, leur exceptionnelle extension dans les basses et une distorsion ultra-faible font que ces enceintes Mackie délivrent un son d’une fidélité pure comme un moniteur studio, quelque soit le niveau.

Caractéristiques de l’enceinte active Mackie SRM450 v2 Black :

– Enceinte Active 2-Voies 12″ Ultra-Compacte de Sonorisation
– Enceinte active 2-voies bi-amplifiée
– moteur à compression haut-rendement avec dôme titane 1,4″
– Boomer 12″ au néodyme avec bobine 3″ à longue excursion
– Boomer servo-contrôlé anti-larsen pour plus de punch dans les basses
Ampli BF Fast Recovery 300W Classe D / ampli HF 100W
– Dispersion ultra-large et homogène via un pavillon à embouchure multi-cellules et guide d’ondes HF
– Filtre électronique de précision Linkwitz-Riley 24dB/octave intégré
– Correction temporelle, alignement des phases et EQ électroniques pour un son de qualité studio
– Entrée micro/ligne et connecteur pass-thru
– Légère pour facilement être transportée (18kg !)
– Possibilité de l’accrocher, de la mettre sur pied ou en retour scène
– Poids indicatif avec emballage : 25kg
– Embase pour pied intégrés
– Poids indicatif avec emballage : 27kg

Zoom Handy recorder H1 & H2

In Accessories, Gears, Public Address, Recording, Sonorisation on January 23, 2011 at 10:26 am

Zoom H1

Zoom H2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caractéristiques de l’Enregistreur Zoom H1 :

– 2 pistes simultanées en enregistrement stéréo
– 2 micros à condensateur unidirectionnels en configuration X/Y
– Format d’enregistrement et lecture MP3 (jusqu’à 320kbps) et Wav (16/24bit – 44.1/48/96kHz)
– Enregistrement sur carte microSD card (16MB – 2GB) et microSDHC card (4GB – 32GB)
– Ecran LCD rétro-éclairé
– Entrée Mic / Line Input: 1/8″ stéréo mini jack
– Sortie casque stéréo 1/8″ stéréo mini jack
– Haut parleur intégré 400mW 8Ω
– Port USB 2.0
– Fonctionne avec 1pile LR6 ou alimentation AD-17 non fournie
– Autonomie d’environ 10h pour une pile LR6
– Poids 60g (sans pile), dimensions 44 x 136 x 31mm
– Livré avec 1x carte micro SD 2GB et 1x pile LR06
– En option : kit accessoires APH-1

Caractéristiques de l’Enregistreur Zoom H2

L’enregistreur numérique Zoom H2 est un enregistreur de poche HD 2 pistes en format poche!

Cet enregistreur ” Handy recorder ” est génial !
De la taille d´un téléphone portable, il ne pèse que 120 grammes.

L’enregitreur H2 de Zoom se glisse dans n´importe quelle poche de veste. Les piles permettent uneautonomie de 5 heures selon les dires du fabricant, et la carte SD 4 Gb permet l´enregistrement de jusqu´à 100 heures en format MP-3 ou jusqu´à 5 heures en qualité CD. Un vrai petit studio ambulant.

Pour quel usage? Pour qui?
L´enregistreur Zoom H2 peut être utilisé (entre autres) pour tout enregistrement vocal.
Que ce soit un cours de fac en amphi, une conférence, meeting ou autre.

Il est aussi idéal pour l´enregistrement d´interviews ou de podcasts. On peut même, au besoin, “marquer” les passages importants!!

On peut encore utiliser le Zoom H2 comme micro USB en le branchant sur son ordinateur… ou aller enregistrer les cris des singes du zoo de Vincennes.

L´essentiel pour le musicien: Le H2 enregistre un concert en qualité CD, et même, en mode 96 kHz, en qualité DVD. C´est super aussi pour enregistrer une répétition de votre groupe, afin de procéder ensuite à une écoute critique.

La technique: On le met en marche, on le place où on veut, et on appuie sur la touche “enregistrer”.
C´est tout !

Même la modulation est automatique, pas de câble, pas de LED clipping, pas de VUs, on peut commencer en 10 secondes.

Le Zoom H2 dispose de 4 modes d´enregistrement: DVD, DAT, CD et format MP-3.
Le mode d´enregistrement choisi influe bien sûr sur la durée de l´enregistrement, puisque la mémoire est limitée. Avec la mémoire de 4 Gb, on peut enregistrer 2 heures en mode DVD et jusqu´à 100 heures en format MP-3.

L’enregistreur numérique Zoom H2 a une entrée directe (Line in) pour keyboards et guitares électriques, et une entrée micro au format mini Jack. En sortie, une connection casque(jack 3.5 mm)comme sur un lecteur MP-3 habituel. Une sortie USB permet la connection directe sur un ordinateur.

C´est excellent pour traiter l´enregistrement avec un logiciel.

  • Enregistreurs de poche : oui
  • Série : Autres
  • Nb de pistes : 2 Pistes
  • Nb d’entrées Jack Instrument : 1
  • Nb d’entrées ligne Jack : 1
  • Temps Maxi d’enregistrement / Qualité : 4 Go Mbit / Khz
  • Format d’enregistrement : WAV et MP3
  • Type de carte : SD
  • Taille de la carte : 512 Mo
  • Nb de pistes enregistrables simultané : 2 Pistes
  • Prise USB : oui


Mackie ProFX12 mixer

In Accessories, Gears, Public Address, Sonorisation on January 23, 2011 at 1:02 am

Simply Professional

The ProFX12 is the perfect choice for smaller performing acts, solo performers or for small venues that don’t have the budget or space for a ton of outboard gear. The ProFX12 has everything needed to make your gig sound great and is really easy to operate. Plus, USB I/O lets you record the show or stream music straight from a laptop. The “Pro” in ProFX stands for Pro. Professional tools, rugged build quality, small footprint…everything you need.

The ProFX12 is loaded with six Mackie high-headroom, low-noise mic preamps, 3-band EQ, a built-in DI for direct connection of a guitar or bass, integrated “Gig-Ready” effects, precision 7-band GEQ and more. The ProFX12 has all the right tools, each and every one designed to sound great. Plus, everything is housed in an ultra-tough enclosure with additional impact-resistant sidecheeks, protecting your investment from the rigors of the road.

Live Sound Toolbox
Smaller performing acts typically play in places that may not have an engineer on hand. In fact, someone from the band might have double-duty as “The Sound Guy” for the group. If you are reading this, chances are that’s you. Let us pander to your obviously higher intellect… you are a professional and you need the tools to get the job done perfectly each and every show. High-headroom mic preamps with great-sounding effects, channel EQ, a built-in DI, plus precision GEQ to tune-up the room or monitor mix. Sounds good, right? The ProFX12 comes with all these features—it is truly the perfect live sound toolbox.

“Gig-Ready” RMFX™ Effects
The all-new RMFX (Running Man FX) 32-bit effects processor brings “Gig Ready,” useable effects to your mixes.  Why scroll through hundreds of bizarre effects, like “ghost ambience?” Yeah, like anyone even knows what that means. Or how about winners like “delay+phaser2”, which you’ll never use in a million years. Those other mixers will leave your fingers raw from all the scrolling you have to do. The RMFX™ processor features 16 solid FX that are known for their utility and usability.  Small, medium and large room reverbs with a mix of warm and bright characteristics puts your mix in the right space. Simple, rich choruses and an array of practical delays enable you to create professional mixes without requiring a two-hour sound check.  Basically, we’ve delivered the choicest parts of a full rack of gear, right at your fingertips, that is easy to master, allowing you to look and sound really good at your next gig. Really, really good.

Record and Stream via USB
With all the right tools for the job, the ProFX12 allows you to create memorable mixes, but even with all those features, portability is paramount and you can’t be burdened with lugging around additional equipment. No worries, integrated USB I/O takes the pain out of recording. Just connect the ProFX12 to a laptop, start up your included copy of Tracktion 3 Music Production Software (or almost any DAW software out there) and you can record the whole mix. You can even stream music from your laptop during breaks. Once you get home, record more tracks or use the ProFX12 to playback some tunes during your next party. Unless you’re anti-social, don’t have the right kind of place for a party or are just sick of buying food and beverages for everyone. In that case, you can play back whatever talk-radio show you listen to when alone.

Not only that, the innovative “USB Thru” switch allows for an impressive live/recording setup when using performance software like Ableton Live or Reason. When gigging, stream the output of your performance software (or iTunes, for that matter) into the ProFX12. Combine that signal with anything plugged into the mixer, and send the whole thing back to the computer for recording. Archiving your integrated live performances has never been easier!

Legendary Mackie Durability
Mackie is known for building mixers that are “Built-Like-A-Tank”, and the ProFX12 is no exception. All of its tender bits are securely encased in a solid steel chassis. No only that, the impact-resistant sidecheeks are made of ultra-tough ABS, adding extra protection where it is most likely to fall…not that you drop things.

PA Made Painless
Simple is better. A utility mixer like the ProFX12 is an integral part of a ludicrously simple Mackie PA system that sounds great. The only choice is whether to go “active” or “passive” with your loudspeaker setup.

Active— Just add Mackie SR, SA, SRMv2 Series Active Loudspeakers or SWA Series Active Subwoofers

Passive — Add a Mackie FR or FRS Series Stereo Power Amplifier and S200 or C Series Precision Passive Loudspeakers

The legendary quality of Mackie loudspeakers combined with the utility of the ProFX12 is a lethal combination that will suit just about any size venue. Just add enough speakers, and you’re golden.

Budget Friendly
The ProFX Series Compact Effects Mixers strike the perfect balance. They offer all the right tools to get the job done well, sport the popular compact footprint that Mackie is known for, and are also the most budget-friendly of all the Mackie sound reinforcement mixers. Our competition either doesn’t have the expansive feature set of the ProFX Series, or they simply will not survive the test of time. You are investing in your mixer and the ProFX will be there for you at every gig, ready to roll.